Spring JDBC 框架一个最简单的Hello World级别的例子

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本地安装mySQL数据库社区版,如果不知道如何安装,可以查看我这篇文章:

MySQL社区版的下载和安装

https://blog.csdn.net/i042416/article/details/107600796

使用普通的 JDBC 数据库时,需要繁琐地写很多代码来处理异常,打开和关闭数据库连接等。但 Spring JDBC 框架负责所有的底层细节,从开始打开连接,准备和执行 SQL 语句,处理异常,处理事务,到最后关闭连接。

Spring JDBC的JdbcTemplate 类执行 SQL 查询、更新语句和存储过程调用,执行迭代结果集和提取返回参数值。它也捕获 JDBC 异常并转换它们到 org.springframework.dao 包中定义的通用类、更多的信息、异常层次结构。

JdbcTemplate 类的实例是线程安全配置的。所以你可以配置 JdbcTemplate 的单个实例,然后将这个共享的引用安全地注入到多个 DAOs 中。

使用 JdbcTemplate 类时常见的做法是在你的 Spring 配置文件中配置数据源,然后共享数据源 bean 依赖注入到 DAO 类中,并在数据源的设值函数中创建了 JdbcTemplate。

在TEST数据库下创建一个新的数据库表Student:

CREATE TABLE Student(
   ID   INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
   NAME VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
   AGE  INT NOT NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (ID)
);

(1) 创建数据访问对象接口DAO - Data access object:
DAO 代表常用的数据库交互的数据访问对象。DAOs 提供一种方法来读取数据并将数据写入到数据库中,它们应该通过一个接口显示此功能,应用程序的其余部分将访问它们。
在 Spring 中,数据访问对象(DAO)支持很容易用统一的方法使用数据访问技术,如 JDBC、Hibernate、JPA 或者 JDO。

StudentDAO.java的源代码:

import java.util.List;
import javax.sql.DataSource;
public interface StudentDAO {
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to initialize
    * database resources ie. connection.
    */
   public void setDataSource(DataSource ds);
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to create
    * a record in the Student table.
    */
   public void create(String name, Integer age);
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to list down
    * a record from the Student table corresponding
    * to a passed student id.
    */
   public Student getStudent(Integer id);
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to list down
    * all the records from the Student table.
    */
   public List<Student> listStudents();
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to delete
    * a record from the Student table corresponding
    * to a passed student id.
    */
   public void delete(Integer id);
   /** 
    * This is the method to be used to update
    * a record into the Student table.
    */
   public void update(Integer id, Integer age);
}

(2) 创建Student.java, 包含id,name和age三个字段,对应我们之前在mysql数据库里创建的student数据库表:

public class Student {
   private Integer age;
   private String name;
   private Integer id;
   public void setAge(Integer age) {
      this.age = age;
   }
   public Integer getAge() {
      return age;
   }
   public void setName(String name) {
      this.name = name;
   }
   public String getName() {
      return name;
   }
   public void setId(Integer id) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   public Integer getId() {
      return id;
   }
}

(3) 创建StudentMapper,将mySQL数据库表User的字段映射到Java POJO Student类的成员变量上去:

import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.RowMapper;
public class StudentMapper implements RowMapper<Student> {
   public Student mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {
      Student student = new Student();
      student.setId(rs.getInt("id"));
      student.setName(rs.getString("name"));
      student.setAge(rs.getInt("age"));
      return student;
   }
}

(4) 创建DAO的实现类:StudentJDBCTemplate.java

import java.util.List;
import javax.sql.DataSource;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.JdbcTemplate;
public class StudentJDBCTemplate implements StudentDAO {
   private DataSource dataSource;
   private JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplateObject; 
   public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) {
      this.dataSource = dataSource;
      this.jdbcTemplateObject = new JdbcTemplate(dataSource);
   }
   public void create(String name, Integer age) {
      String SQL = "insert into Student (name, age) values (?, ?)";     
      jdbcTemplateObject.update( SQL, name, age);
      System.out.println("Created Record Name = " + name + " Age = " + age);
      return;
   }
   public Student getStudent(Integer id) {
      String SQL = "select * from Student where id = ?";
      Student student = jdbcTemplateObject.queryForObject(SQL, 
                        new Object[]{id}, new StudentMapper());
      return student;
   }
   public List<Student> listStudents() {
      String SQL = "select * from Student";
      List <Student> students = jdbcTemplateObject.query(SQL, 
                                new StudentMapper());
      return students;
   }
   public void delete(Integer id){
      String SQL = "delete from Student where id = ?";
      jdbcTemplateObject.update(SQL, id);
      System.out.println("Deleted Record with ID = " + id );
      return;
   }
   public void update(Integer id, Integer age){
      String SQL = "update Student set age = ? where id = ?";
      jdbcTemplateObject.update(SQL, age, id);
      System.out.println("Updated Record with ID = " + id );
      return;
   }
}

(5) MainApp:

import java.util.List;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import com.tutorialspoint.StudentJDBCTemplate;
public class MainApp {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      ApplicationContext context = 
             new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("Beans.xml");
      StudentJDBCTemplate studentJDBCTemplate = 
      (StudentJDBCTemplate)context.getBean("studentJDBCTemplate");    
      System.out.println("------Records Creation--------" );
      studentJDBCTemplate.create("Zara", 11);
      studentJDBCTemplate.create("Nuha", 2);
      studentJDBCTemplate.create("Ayan", 15);
      System.out.println("------Listing Multiple Records--------" );
      List<Student> students = studentJDBCTemplate.listStudents();
      for (Student record : students) {
         System.out.print("ID : " + record.getId() );
         System.out.print(", Name : " + record.getName() );
         System.out.println(", Age : " + record.getAge());
      }
      System.out.println("----Updating Record with ID = 2 -----" );
      studentJDBCTemplate.update(2, 20);
      System.out.println("----Listing Record with ID = 2 -----" );
      Student student = studentJDBCTemplate.getStudent(2);
      System.out.print("ID : " + student.getId() );
      System.out.print(", Name : " + student.getName() );
      System.out.println(", Age : " + student.getAge());      
   }
}

(6) Beans.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd ">

   <!-- Initialization for data source -->
   <bean id="dataSource" 
      class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource">
      <property name="driverClassName" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"/>
      <property name="url" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/TEST"/>
      <property name="username" value="root"/>
      <property name="password" value="123456"/>
   </bean>

   <!-- Definition for studentJDBCTemplate bean -->
   <bean id="studentJDBCTemplate" 
      class="com.sap.StudentJDBCTemplate">
      <property name="dataSource"  ref="dataSource" />    
   </bean>

</beans>

(7) 记住将mysql-connector-java.jar添加到Java项目的build path里.

运行MainApp.java, 看到如下输出,说明应用正常工作:

Jul 27, 2020 2:58:49 PM org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext prepareRefresh
INFO: Refreshing org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext@32a1bec0: startup date [Mon Jul 27 14:58:49 CST 2020]; root of context hierarchy
Jul 27, 2020 2:58:49 PM org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanDefinitionReader loadBeanDefinitions
INFO: Loading XML bean definitions from class path resource [Beans.xml]
Loading class `com.mysql.jdbc.Driver'. This is deprecated. The new driver class is `com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver'. The driver is automatically registered via the SPI and manual loading of the driver class is generally unnecessary.
Jul 27, 2020 2:58:49 PM org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource setDriverClassName
INFO: Loaded JDBC driver: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
------Records Creation--------
Created Record Name = Zara Age = 11
Created Record Name = Nuha Age = 2
Created Record Name = Ayan Age = 15
------Listing Multiple Records--------
ID : 1, Name : Zara, Age : 11
ID : 2, Name : Nuha, Age : 20
ID : 3, Name : Ayan, Age : 15
ID : 4, Name : Zara, Age : 11
ID : 5, Name : Nuha, Age : 2
ID : 6, Name : Ayan, Age : 15
----Updating Record with ID = 2 -----
Updated Record with ID = 2
----Listing Record with ID = 2 -----
ID : 2, Name : Nuha, Age : 20


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